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Types of errors:

There are four types of errors in articulation. These are best remembered with acronym "SODA"
Substitution, Omission, Distortion, and Addition.


1. SUBSTITUTION - occurs when one sound is substituted for another.
Examples: I azzume Villiam's buthday it Thuzday.


2. OMISSION - occurs when a sound is left out that is too hard to pronounce.
Examples: Please print tree copies of the repote.


3. DISTORTION - occurs when the sound is not left out or substituted but does not sound right. There is an attempt to make the sound but it is misarticulated.
Examples: "kerrec" vs. "correct" / "tell me" vs "till me"


4. ADDITION - occurs when an extra sound is added.
Examples: Illinois, Des Moines, Merlot and Salmon.

Articulation evaluation steps:

(Van Riper)

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